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The Definitive Guide To Metformin: How to Use The World’s Most Studied Drug For Living A Long And Healthy Life

Metformin is one of the very few drugs on the planet I will happily bet my life on.

Out of all the supplements and medications I have EVER used, it remains one of my top 3 of all time.

Even in this revolutionary day of biomedical advancement, it still remains one of the most powerful life-extension drugs on the planet.

I’m confident the now-funded TAME study (Targeting Aging with Metformin) will prove my unyielding and unwavering love for it’s ability to enhance and optimize human health:

“Targeting Aging with Metformin (TAME) is a novel clinical trial, that will test whether the drug metformin, a widely-used treatment for type 2 diabetes, can delay the onset of age-related diseases and conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer���s disease.”

A quick Google search of “Metformin + {any age-related disease you can think of}” will pull up an abundance of positive results.

While it can do a LOT, there remains a great deal of mis-understanding and misinformation behind how the drug works and its supposed “side effects”.

Scientists who don’t understand how to read studies in their appropriate context, mainstream media outlets who attempt to write their own hit pieces about Metformin…the list goes on.

That’s why I wrote this article:

To FINALLY and DEFINITIVELY put every single myth and misconception about Metformin to rest.

A note from Jay before proceeding any further: This article is over 10,000 words in length. There’s a very high chance that you’ll move on to other tabs or apps before finishing this. That’s why I created a video walkthrough of this. In just 40 minutes I go over everything on this article PLUS some additional context. Get it from here.

What is Metformin?

Metformin is derived from natural compounds in the French Liliac plant (Galega officinalis), which has been used to treat diabetes since the Middle Ages.

It was first discovered in 1922 but was not used as a medicine until 1957, where it was first used in France for treating type 2 diabetes (i.e. adult onset diabetes).

So while it’s technically a “drug” in the most literal sense, Metformin can be considered as a plant that grows in the ground.

Please focus on the understanding Metformin is essentially a source energy(GOD) created plant found in nature.

Since its inception, Metformin has been proven time and time again to be a powerful “therapeutic wonder drug” for optimizing human life.

I believe I said it best in The TOT Bible:

“It has been used for over 100 years in diabetics and is extremely safe.

It is primarily used as an anti- diabetic drug to lower insulin levels caused by elevated blood glucose levels.

Metformin also exerts a protective effect to both vascular and neural-networks.

Additionally, it is anti-cancerous and dramatically lowers systemic inflammation.

It is my opinion that every living person can benefit from using it.”

Now that you know Metformin is the holy grail of life extension medications, let’s examine how it works in the human body.

Metformin’s Mechanism of Action

If we’re looking at Metformin’s mechanism of action in the context of treating diabetes, it is quite straightforward as it behaves the same way other biguanides do:

“Reducing the amount of glucose (sugar) made by your liver

Decreasing the amount of glucose your body absorbs

Increasing the effect of insulin on your body [your body’s tissues become more sensitive to insulin]”

(NOTE: Biguanides are a class of drugs that work to prevent glucose production in the liver)

As for type 1 diabetes, a very recent study found that metformin was able to lower blood sugar concentrations AND lower the required dose for insulin in patients taking insulin therapy.

But how does Metformin work on a cellular level in relation to aging?

The graphic below shows everything in spectacularly fine detail (if you understand medical terminology at the cellular level).


Here’s what the study Metformin As a Tool to Targeting Aging has to say:

(1) Metformin affects the receptors in pathways that are activated with aging and longevity (when modulated)

(2) Within the cell, Metformin inhibits the inflammatory pathway and activates AMPK (thereby increasing mTOR inhibition), while also modulating oxidative stress

(3) “These processes jointly affect inflammation, cellular survival, stress defense, autophagy, and protein synthesis, which are major biological outcomes associated with aging/longevity”

The most probable explanation for why Metformin provides these profound benefits is due to it lowering systemic inflammation which often leads to insulin resistance (IR).

And as I’ve said before, inflammation is the ROOT of all aging diseases – cancer, dementia, heart disease, and much more.

FYI: Insulin resistance takes place when the beta cells in your pancreas can’t produce enough insulin to keep sugar out of your bloodstream.

This leads to a rapid and dangerous rise in blood sugar, which then results in a wide variety of undesired health problems ie the diseases of aging.

Metformin Benefits – WHY You Should Use Metformin

If you read Living A Fully Optimized Life, you already know why I strongly advocate for the daily use of Metformin:

“Primary benefit: Increased insulin sensitivity and lowered blood levels of insulin due to its ability to cleanse the microbiome, while also inhibiting glucose formation in the liver.”

This is not something to take lightly, as Metformin is arguably the most powerful insulin suppressor in existence.

But here’s the thing: Metformin’s health-optimizing potential goes far beyond inhibiting the absorption of carbohydrates into your bloodstream.

Although it’s been safely used in diabetics for decades, it is also one of the most studied substances in all of medical history.

It is extremely safe and it is very well tolerated — both for normal people and for patient population groups who are severely compromised.

(“Compromised” in this context refers to obese Type 2 diabetics whose pancreases are completely broken to the point where insulin production can no longer be controlled)

There are hundreds of thousands of patient years invested into studying this drug (and counting!), all of which have revealed the following positive benefits of using Metformin…

Metformin Extends Lifespan

If you take nothing else away from this article, just remember that Metformin is the closest thing in existence to “life extension in a pill”.

In fact, it even helps diabetic patients LIVE LONGER than non-diabetic patients on a placebo:

“Scientists compared mortality in diabetic individuals treated with metformin or sulphonylurea monotherapy and matched non-diabetic controls.

And guess what? The diabetics on metformin lived longer than even their non-diabetic patient-matched counterparts.

And the study was massive, following 78,241 subjects over a five and a half year period.

Specifically, adjusted mean survival time was 15 percent lower in matched individuals without diabetes relative to diabetics on metformin monotherapy.”

This is nothing to scoff at – the study quoted above also examined +90,000 people without diabetes, and more than 12,000 people who were on sulphonylurea monotherapy.

This is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the full extent of understanding Metformin’s anti-aging and life-extending properties.

Don’t believe me?

Google “Metformin + Life Extension” to see for yourself.

(Don’t forget to also google ‘Jay Campbell + Metformin’ to see how far back I’ve been writing on its potential to transform human health)

Metformin Has Multiple Anti-Cancer Effects

A 2017 review examined the multiple ways in which metformin indirectly and directly helps the body fight against cancer:


In terms of its indirect effects, Metformin lowers blood glucose levels and thereby decreases the survival rate of cancer cells.

It can also inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while also activating the body’s immune response to cancer cells.

As for Metformin’s direct anti-cancer effects, there are two types of mechanisms at play that involve adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK).

AMPK-Dependent: One of the ways in which Metformin acts on cancer cells is through decreasing folate levels, which thereby inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells.

AMPK-Independent: Metformin can increase the rate at which apoptosis (cell death) and autophagy (eliminating damaged cells) take place in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which lowers tumor growth.

Metformin Is Neuroprotective

If you’re someone who takes their brain health very seriously, Metformin is worth a deeper look.

Metformin protects your neural networks due to its ability to suppress inflammation within the brain, while also inducing the regrowth and repair of nervous tissue (i.e. neuroregeneration).

A large retrospective study published this year examined how long-term Metformin use (>2 years) effected the incidence of neurodegenerative disease (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, Hungington’s).

Nearly 42,000 elderly adult US veterans with type 2 diabetes were recruited in this study.

The study discovered that metformin exposure was significantly associated with a lower risk of neurodegenerative disease across the board.

If this is what Metformin can do for a compromised population, imagine what it will do for a young adult with fully optimized health!

Metformin Lowers Systemic Inflammation

As you have gathered by now, Metformin is phenomenal at reducing your body’s levels of chronic inflammation.

Please take the importance of this next statement into context.

Systemic Inflammation is the root cause of nearly all disease and biological dysfunction.

Metformin reduces systemic inflammation via AMPK-dependent and AMPK-indpendent mechanisms, similar to the mechanisms that bring about Metformin’s anti-cancer effects:

“At the cellular level, metformin suppresses the inflammation in many cases and reduces or eliminates inflammatory factors mainly through dependent mechanisms and sometimes independent of AMPK at the cellular level and through other ways at the systematic levels.

It is also effective in reducing the level of oxidative stress factors by regulating the antioxidant system of the cell.”

That’s after reviewing a total of 76 studies between 2003 and 2017!

And just like its anti-cancer effects, the anti-inflammatory effects are also direct and indirect:

“Recent preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that metformin not only improves chronic inflammation through the improvement of metabolic parameters such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, but also has a direct anti-inflammatory action.

Studies have suggested that metformin suppresses inflammatory response by inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and independent pathways.”

Using metformin would be a smart idea for anyone looking to optimize their inflammatory biomarkers.

Metformin Improves Your Gut Health

Gut health has become a hot topic in the healthcare field as it is increasingly proven to be a core component of several aging-related diseases.

More specifically, your gut microbiome (the bacteria cultures in your gut) plays a large role in your digestive health and immune function.

Metformin was recently shown to increase the formation of mucin-degrading Akkermansia miciniphila in the gut.

What does this mean?

This change in the gut microbiome dramatically improves glucose uptake in the intestines, while protecting the intestinal barrier from invading pathogens:

“…the benefits of metformin may have developed in response to an improved integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, said the researchers.

When the mucin layer lining the gut is maintained, the translocation of pro-inflammatory lipopolysaccharides is reduced, thus controlling fat storage, adipose tissue metabolism, and glucose homeostasis, according to the experts.”

Akkermansia plays a critical role in gut health because it is a key factor responsible for mucin thickness.

Mucin lines the gut, protecting the intestines from damage.

Put another way, Akkermansia muciniphila reduces inflammation, lowers insulin resistance and improves symptoms of metabolic syndrome.

In short, Metformin promotes the growth of “good” bacteria” and inhibits the production of “bad” bacteria.

Metformin Burns Body Fat Faster

The same AMPK-activating mechanisms used to give Metformin its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects also aid in burning body fat.

When women and men ask me, “What is the best fat burning supplement you know of”, I instantly have always retorted, ‘Metformin’.

Let me explain why I provide that answer as I wrote about it extensively in The TOT Bible:

“…[AMPK is] an enzymatic “master switch” that is crucial for regulation of cellular energy, proper hormone expression and protein synthesis.

Metformin upregulates AMPK536 and increases lipolysis (i.e. fat-burning), similar to how lipolysis increases while fasting.

From a bio-evolutionary standpoint, the presence of famine induces a metabolic shift, where we call upon our fat stores for energy production.

By increasing the expression of AMPK, Metformin mimics the effects of caloric restriction (a.k.a. the only proven life-extension strategy in mammalian models).”

Glucose uptake and fat oxidation are up-regulated, while fat synthesis is inhibited.

Exercise works in the same fashion, and supplemental curcumin also helps you lose fat through the same AMPK pathway.

If you understand any of this, you know why I’m such a big proponent of fasting and using Metformin in combination with dessicated thyroid (porcine) as all of them act synergistically as a metabolic accelerant to torch body fat levels.

Metformin Is Cardioprotective

Metformin has become of great interest to heart health experts as diabetics are far more likely to suffer serious cardiovascular problems.

And based on the emerging research, scientists are encouraging the FDA to remove congestive heart failure as a contra-indication from its packaging.


Because Metformin has proven itself to be an effective cardioprotective agent:

“These effects are mediated through an increase in 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and by increased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cardiomyocytes with an increased production of nitric oxide (NO).

Metformin preconditions the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury and may improve myocardial remodeling after an ischemic insult.”

So not only does it significantly lower your risk of heart disease, but it also improves blood flow through elevated nitric oxide (NO) production!

One of the main ways in which Metformin improves heart health is by reducing the formation of AGEs (advanced glycation end-products).

AGEs are nasty little compounds responsible for plaque build-up in your arteries, leading to atherosclerosis.

Additionally, Metformin reduces the blood levels of “growth factors” that accelerate cancer and various heart diseases.

Metformin May Be Effective Against the Coronavirus [UPDATE]

In an unexpected twist of fate, Metformin came up in the news again when scientists started inquiring about its potential as a COVID-19 treatment:

“Recent evidence indicates novel actions of metformin in the treatment of autoimmune disease and reduced macrophage cytokines synthesis.

Besides, it has been suggested that metformin may have an inhibitory effect on the virus through increasing insulin sensitivity”

An article published the very next day provided some insight into how Metformin would theoretically combat SARS-Cov-2.

Possible mechanisms include upregulation of the ACE2 receptor and altering its structure via Metformin-induced AMPK activation, thereby blocking the virus’ entry into the cell and preventing it from downregulating the ACE2 receptors (which would lead to undesirable pro-inflammatory effects).

As you can see, Metformin’s potential for inverting the entire “sick care” medical system is limitless.

The number of legitimate citations substantiating Metformin’s NUMEROUS health benefits is nothing short of breathtaking.

This 2-minute video summary between myself and Nelson Vergel really says it all:

But if you really want to take a deeper dive into Metformin’s MANY other benefits, Dr. Jeffrey Dach compiled all the information you need in 2014 and it still stands the test of time.

Debunking Every Single Metformin Myth And Misconception

While Metformin has gained notable popularity for its positive health benefits, it has received an equal amount of backlash.


Put simply, it is NOT in the best interest of pharmaceutical companies to have this drug easily available to normal and healthy people.

Please read and reread that statement again.

We live in a world where ‘being sick’ is a trillion dollar industry.

Metformin has the ability to collapse Big Pharma’s ‘sick care medicine model’ if its use was to become widespread.

For the past 60 years Big Pharma aka Sick Care Medicine has prevented doctors from prescribing Metformin in any other context outside of type 2 diabetes.

Dr Brett Osborn (a renown Neurological Surgeon and author of the excellent book Get Serious) told me the following in 2014.

“If Metformin was placed into the global water supply, hospitals worldwide would shut down. “

If I haven’t made myself clear enough yet, let me put it in bolder terms.

Metformin is the most effective and efficient drug known to man for the following mechanisms of action:

  • insulin & inflammation suppression
  • neuroprotection
  • anti-cancer agent
  • microbiome cleansing
  • Akkermansia producing
  • body fat incinerating

Obviously you now know why Big Pharma is doing this.

Let me also show you how they do it.

There are two primary ways.

  1. The first is through indoctrinating students with misinformation while they are in the early years of medical school.
  2. The second is through perpetuating unfounded fears of side effects in mainstream news articles to scare people away from using it.

Like the old saying goes: “If you want to own a person, take control of their mind”.

As I’ve already indicated and by now you know, we are at a point in society where “sickness is the business”.

But that time is now at an end.

I’m in the process of manifesting a golden age and the abolition of the sick care system is directly in my cross hairs.

Allow me to counter and eventually demolish these myths right now!

MYTH #1: Metformin Causes Lactic Acidosis

Here’s a brief overview on how lactic acidosis comes about:

“Lactic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis that begins when a person overproduces or underutilizes lactic acid, and their body is not able to adjust to these changes.

People with lactic acidosis have problems with their liver(and sometimes their kidneys) being able to remove excess acid from their body.

If lactic acid builds up in the body more quickly than it can be removed, acidity levels in bodily fluids — such as blood — spike.

This buildup of acid causes an imbalance in the body’s pH level, which should always be slightly alkaline instead of acidic.”

Common symptoms include extreme fatigue, abdominal pain, shallow & rapid breathing, muscle cramps, and body weakness.

So how does Metformin fit into the picture?

A single study in the late 40’s was done which stated that Metformin was associated with incidences of lactic acidosis.

Despite being done in a heavily compromised patient population group, the fear of lactic acidosis was widespread in the medical community.

How compromised were these patients?

End-stage renal failure, diabetic AND obese.

This absurd notion was thoroughly debunked as early as 2004 – YEARS before I even started writing about Metformin on the Internet:

“Metformin rarely, if ever, causes lactic acidosis when it is used as labeled.

Metformin is associated with lactic acidosis in patients with conditions that can themselves cause lactic acidosis (heart failure, hypoxia, sepsis, etc.).

…When metformin is used as labeled, the increased risk of lactic acidosis is either zero or so close to zero that it cannot be factored into ordinary clinical decision making.

That metformin can itself cause lactic acidosis is supported by the finding of lactic acidosis in people who took overdoses.”

And if you really want to do the math, the chances of FATAL lactic acidosis are so insignificant they aren’t even worth a concerned thought.

3 cases for every 100,000 patient years involve fatal lactic acidosis in association with Metformin use, and this is all occurring in patients with renal failure.

If we were to do a back-of-the-envelope calculation, you’re taking about less than approximately 10 cases for every ONE MILLION patients over 60 years.

This incidence is TWENTY TIMES LOWER than in Phenformin, the predecessor drug to Metformin.

MYTH #2: Metformin Leads To Mitochondrial Dysfunction

Mitochondrial dysfunction happens when your mitochondria do not produce sufficient energy for the body to function appropriately:

“Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs when the mitochondria do not work as well as they should due to another disease or condition.

Many conditions can lead to secondary mitochondrial dysfunction and affect other diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, muscular dystrophy, Lou Gehrig’s disease, diabetes and cancer.”

Many physicians will claim that Metformin leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, but the studies they use are always inherently flawed.

Primarily, they involve patient population groups that are massively compromised.

I’m talking about obese Type 2 diabetics who suffer from metabolic disorder and have high levels of insulin resistance.

Certain critically important lifestyle factors such as a crappy diet, lack of exercise, poor sleep, alcohol consumption, and levels of systemic inflammation were also not taken into account.


That’s also not including the obscenely high dosages of Metformin being consumed…the studies would use dosages between 6-9 grams PER DAY!!!

Myself, I’ve never gone above 1 gram of Metformin taken twice a day(2gms) and I am in supremely high levels of health.

These “studies” are of no surprise to me, as mitochondrial respiration is greatly reduced when you are using supra-pharmacological levels of Metformin.

As anyone who is familiar with using medications knows, the correct dosage determines whether it delivers a miracle cure or cellularly toxic poison.

In short, these studies are not using Metformin in the way I recommend, nor in the way anyone would use Metformin for all the various reasons previously listed.


You cannot take the results from these studies and apply them towards healthy, normal adults (or even fully optimized people for that matter).

I highly encourage watching this video, where I talk about Myths #1-2 in further detail:

MYTH #3: Metformin Will Destroy Your Kidneys

This is another falsehood.

The only time Metformin was proven to have an adverse reaction in patients who had BOTH type 2 diabetes and moderate chronic kidney disease.

Even the FDA revised their guidelines to reflect this:

“The revised guidelines stated that the use of metformin is only absolutely contraindicated in patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) (eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 ).

Therefore, patients with moderate CKD (eGFR 30–59 ml/min/1.73 m2 ) are eligible to receive metformin.”

In plain English, even patients with compromised renal function can benefit from using Metformin.

MYTH #4: Metformin Contains The Carcinogenic Compound NDMA

In early December 2019, the FDA started testing samples of Metformin for a known carcinogen called N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA):

“The agency is in the beginning stages of testing metformin; however, the agency has not confirmed if NDMA in metformin is above the acceptable daily intake (ADI) limit of 96 nanograms in the U.S.,” FDA spokesman Jeremy Kahn says in an emailed statement.

“A person taking a drug that contains NDMA at or below the ADI every day for 70 years is not expected to have an increased risk of cancer.”

However, NDMA being “over the limit” largely has no meaning from a risk perspective unless you show HOW HIGH over the limit it is.

And although the results are not in just yet, there is ZERO reason to panic:

“Acceptable levels of nitrosamines are set in nanograms (ng), i.e., one billionth of a gram, and is based on what is considered as reasonably safe if a patient continues to take the affected medicine every day for a lifetime of 70 years.

The additional risk posed by NDMA from metformin, at the levels detected, is considered very low.”

The levels of NDMA in Metformin – if any – are laughable at best.

The only way this would have ANY significant impact on your health is if you over-dosed Metformin at 6 grams a day for 70 years straight.

NDMA has also been found in many other drugs (see the table for yourself), and even the FDA themselves say the risk of any negative effect is extremely low:

“NDMA ESTIMATED RISK: FDA estimated that if 8,000 people took the highest valsartan dose (320 mg) containing NDMA from the recalled batches daily for four years, there may be one additional case of cancer over the lifetimes of the 8,000 people.”

MYTH #5: Metformin Inhibits Mitochondrial Adaptions To Exercise

Recently, the New York Times released an article titled “An Anti-Aging Pill? Think Twice” had this to say about Metformin:

“A popular diabetes drug sometimes taken to slow aging may diminish some of the expected health benefits of aerobic exercise in healthy older adults, according to a new report.

The drug, metformin, can blunt certain physical changes from exercise that normally help people to age well.”

Here’s an excerpt from the study they used to make this claim:

“The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that metformin diminishes the improvement in insulin sensitivity and cardiorespiratory fitness after aerobic exercise training (AET) by inhibiting skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and protein synthesis in older adults (62 ± 1 years).

The influence of metformin on AET-induced improvements in physiological function was highly variable and associated with the effect of metformin on the mitochondria.

These data suggest that prior to prescribing metformin to slow aging, additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms that elicit positive and negative responses to metformin with and without exercise.”

A couple of things wrong with this study.

They’re not looking at resistance training (i.e weight training) – the exercise modality for the study was nothing more than 45 minutes of cardio.

In this 63 patient cohort(a very small sample of patients I might add especially knowing that every patient is N-of-1), they did not look at critically important factors such as diet and body fat levels.

It’s rather unfortunate so many studies typically forget to account for such factors, and conduct them in compromised patients while refusing to control they things they SHOULD be controlling for.

Notable health experts (Dave Asprey and Dr. Chandler Marrs) have often quoted this exercise study, in addition to a singular study done in lean and diabetic rats to make their case:

“Whereas a dosage of 30 mg/kg/day had no significant effect, in vivo oxidative capacity was 21% and 48% lower after metformin treatment at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, respectively, independent of genotype”

To put this dosage in a human context, a 170 pound man (77 kg) is taking 2.31 g of Metformin per day at 30mg/kg/day.

That also means 100 mg/kg/day translates to 7.7 g of Metformin daily, and 21.3 GRAMS PER DAY for 300 mg/kg/day.

These rats are heavily overdosed while being placed in an isolated and well-controlled environment.

So while these experts mean well, their logic is inherently flawed.

It is also important to mention that few if any studies ever done are able to be replicated.

Not only that, but why would anyone educated to the modern art of peer review science take any study seriously?

This comes directly from my book Living a Fully Optimized Life:

You’ve been fooled into thinking studies are foolproof, credible and valid when they are NOTHING OF THE SORT.

Studies today are almost worthless and certainly cannot be taken at face value from anyone.

Their designs have been manipulated to achieve a specific result, and a large portion of studies cannot be successfully replicated.

They’re often written in complex language, making them difficult to interpret.

As a result, you have to learn how to “study the study” and “follow the money.”

There are many who live and die by the ‘infallible’ scientific method, and yet they fail to see its inherent flaws and biases.

To make matters worse, the statistical methods used in most studies is such that “if measurement errors were to be taken into account in every study in the social sciences, nothing would ever get published”.

The Wired article covers social sciences specifically, but the issue is present across all fields.

A brief Google search will even show you the dirty underbelly of modern research.

From false AI-generated studies readily accepted by major publishers, to intentionally hiding known faked results so every study based on those fake results doesn’t get rejected, it’s almost shocking what people can get away with.

Dr Anthony Jay’s paradigm altering book Estrogeneration conclusively proves most studies are fraudulent.

Who Will Metformin NOT Work For and When NOT To Use Metformin

As I said earlier, Metformin might not be a suitable option for you if your kidneys are impaired.

But one population group that often expresses skepticism over using Metformin are athletes.


It has to do with Metformin and the rate limiting of mTOR (mamalian Target Of Rapamycin), and I talked about this briefly in The TOT Bible:

“Secondly, by reducing the mTOR signaling pathway, Metformin integrates both intracellular and extracellular signals, thereby serving as a central regulator of cell metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival.”

Many researchers will use this fact to promote the idea that Metformin will inhibit both strength gains and muscle gains.

Following their train of logic, Metformin should be avoided by people who are frequently exercising.

Dr. Peter Attia is a popular proponent of this idea:

“Metformin also appears to impair muscle growth (specifically the inflammatory response that’s necessary for muscles to grow)

For the above reasons, Peter stopped taking metformin and has instead decided to focus more on exercise

The more you exercise, and the healthier you are, the less benefit, and potentially more detriment, you could experience from metformin”

And furthermore, due to the slight reduction in glucose uptake, elite athletes may find their maximum power output is decreased.

This is partially true — Metformin’s glucose inhibition is so effective, a high-performance power or strength athlete will likely lose some maximal power capacity output.

But people who throw the “mTOR lowering = bad for gains” mantra go a step too far.

They will often quote studies like the Metformin to Augment Strength Training Effective Response in Seniors (MASTERS) to back their case up:

“Although responses to PRT varied, placebo gained more lean body mass (p = .003) and thigh muscle mass (p < .001) than metformin. CT scan showed that increases in thigh muscle area (p = .005) and density (p = .020) were greater in placebo versus metformin. There was a trend for blunted strength gains in metformin that did not reach statistical significance.

These results underscore the benefits of PRT in older adults, but metformin negatively impacts the hypertrophic response to resistance training in healthy older individuals”

(While this study was designed well, strength was measured using a one rep max on a knee extension exercise…hardly an effective way to measure strength)

As a 20 year user of Metformin, I KNOW this is a bunch of fear-mongering nonsense.

In a fully optimized individual(Therapeutic Testosterone and or IGF-1 stim like HGH/Peptides), the mTOR rate limiting/inhibition is transient and negligible.

I know SEVERAL elite-level bodybuilders who regularly compete, yet do not suffer any limitations in how much muscle they gain.

These are super-lean (sub 10% body fat), 250 lb+ dudes who are also using supra-physiologic dosages of other drugs.

As pro bodybuilder Stan Efferding told me in a podcast I did with him, the mTOR-limiting factor is irrelevant because many competitors(BB, strong men, other performance athletes) who use Metformin are often “enhanced”.

But I would go as far as to argue that Metformin is STILL a very necessary drug, especially considering that it will dramatically lower insulin resistance.

It is also important to keep in mind the overwhelming majority of people do not train at a fraction of the intensity needed for mTOR inhibition to be of any concern.

And granting the idea maximum power output is reduced slightly, Metformin is still worth it in the big picture for its overall ability to extend life through its suppression of insulin & systemic inflammation.

Let me for the record say this:

If you are a power athlete at an elite level, an internationally ranked & professional bodybuilder, or a competitive strongman, you may consider stopping your use of Metformin two-four weeks before your performance.

(By the way…this literally applies to 0.01% of the population)

The slight reduction in glucose uptake MAY lower your power output, but don’t get me wrong.

Many strongmen have giant barrel chests, high visceral and abdominal adiposity, and are systemically inflamed.

Do you want to be the person who lifts 600+ on each of the Big 3 lifts yet dies at 50 years of age from a myocardial infarction?

Or do you want to be the guy on Metformin who doesn’t have these problems and lives a lot longer?

Obviously, the choice is always yours.

Truth be told, the odds are you will die earlier if you don’t use Metformin.

This very minor issue is not going to magically over-ride all of the advantages and benefits of Metformin, and even then it’s arguable whether a competitive athlete’s performance is going to be noticeably hindered.

Metformin is research and empirically proven to do so many amazing things for biological systems, IMO, it’s not even WORTH thinking whether Metformin should be used or not.

Get lean and muscular, lower your inflammation and virtually 10 times out of 10 you’ll find that these “problems” are just made-up stories in your head.

And like I said on Twitter, what kind of imbecile would use Metformin and NOT exercise (via weight training and regular cardio) at the same time?

Here’s what I think…

Use therapeutic testosterone, train to positive muscular failure, and all of the hype regarding very minimal losses in strength and muscle (assuming there’s any) is BS.

Quality of life extension is 1000x more important than “mTOR inhibition”!

Metformin Side Effects

As Metformin is one of the most well-tolerated drugs in existence, it has a very mild side effect profile.

The only “true” side effect I’ve ever noticed in people who take Metformin is some form of mild discomfort that comes in the form of intestinal disturbance, slight nausea, stomach discomfort and flatulence.

In every single one of these cases, the issue can be traced to a damaged and infected gut microbiome.

How is that caused?

Eating a shitty diet high in sugar, processed carbs and drinking too much alcohol.

Truthfully, Metformin is working to RID your gut of nasty pathogens laying dormant inside your microbiome.

It’s the food you put in your mouth that’s cause the issue, not Metformin itself.

This “adaptation phase” normally lasts between 7-14 days in people who typically have a really bad diet and are new to taking Metformin.

In the worst-case scenario, you may consider switching to an extended release form of Metformin.

But be warned.

Metformin is not a magic pill.

While it does blunt the insulin response to crappy foods (hence why it’s given to diabetics who won’t change their lifestyle), you can’t keep eating like crap and expect to gain any noticeable benefit.

Metformin will not give you all the positive health benefits it has to offer if you do not change your lifestyle from the ground up.

You need to live an insulin-controlled lifestyle for it to work fully and properly.

That means lowering your body fat, optimizing your hormones, eating a clean diet, engaging in regular strength and cardiovascular training, and anything else that will massively improve your overall health.

Metformin is indeed a very powerful medication when used consciously and sensibly by people who want to extend their life, improve their aging process, while reducing their body fat, and risk of disease.

But like everything else when living in the Matrix aka earth realm, if you want the best results out of Metformin, you have to ‘tend the garden’ aka PUT IN THE WORK.

(NOTE: you may find it useful to supplement with an advanced multi-spectrum formulation of Vitamin B12, as Metformin can cause a deficiency in this vitamin.

I would also recommend supplementing with folate if you are genetically predisposed to having a folate and/or Vitamin B12 deficiency. (Dr Anthony Jay can test for this if you get your DNA analyzed with him.)

Is Berberine An Acceptable Alternative To Metformin?

Often times I am asked if it’s acceptable to take Berberine, as it is an over-the-counter alternative to Metformin that doesn’t require a prescription.

My answer to this question depends on whether or not you can physically locate and use Metformin.

If you can, then I absolutely do not recommend using Berberine over Metformin.

On paper, Berberine has a similar biological profile to Metformin in terms of its mechanism of action.

However, Berberine is a lot more expensive than Metformin and in my experience, it is not as effective.

I know multiple people who are “top of the chain” in the supplement industry, and they told me the results were “not good” after testing many Berberine products available.

And since you can get Metformin at a much lower cost (and legally), why bother?

Not to mention, Metformin is massively better studied and researched than Berberine.

For more information on the difference between Metformin and Berberine, watch this podcast I did with Dennis Mangan.

How To Use Metformin For Fully Optimized Health

I outlined my Metformin dosing recommendations in a previous article, and I will restate them here:

“We highly recommend a dosage of 500-1000 mg twice per day for men and 250-500 mg twice per day for women (once in the morning and once at night).

The morning dose should be taken on an empty stomach for best results (i.e. reducing insulin levels), while the second dose can be taken right before your evening meal.”

Personally, I take 1 gram twice a day and this has proven to be highly effective in reducing my insulin levels and improving my inflammatory biomarkers.

Don’t wait until you are older – you can be as young as 25 and still benefit greatly from Metformin.

Considering the unhealthy modern environments we live in and the biological onslaught we face from invasive toxins, there’s no reason you shouldn’t start suppressing your insulin signal (levels of blood glucose) and controlling for systemic inflammation right now.

I can personally attest to this, having been a long-time user of Metformin for the past 19 years.

I am 49 years old and I look better than 99.99% of the human population with my shirt off.

More importantly, I have the lab work and pristine biomarkers proving, exceptional metabolic health, as I’ve been meticulously tracking them for more than 2 decades.

My DNA analysis with Dr Anthony Jay proves I am aging backwards.

I don’t say this to brag — I say this to show you what Metformin can do for people who are fully dialed in from a full spectrum optimization standpoint, ie lifestyle, nutrition, training, hormones and mindfulness/inner work.

If Metformin works so well in type 2 diabetics who ABUSE their bodies, imagine what it can do for you.’

And remember…

Your Lifestyle and Your Biochemical Individuality are the ultimate determinants as to whether Metformin will work well for you.

There is no black-and-white answer, as it all depends on how you respond.

We all have a unique response, both physiologically and cellularly.

All of your lifestyle habits (exercise, diet, sleep, supplementation, stress, inner work etc.) are worth considering.

I highly recommend you watch this podcast I did with Dr. Nelson Vergel, which still remains the BEST video online for anything and everything related to Metformin:

Where To Buy Metformin

Metformin will require a doctor’s prescription, but please do not let misinformed medical professionals stop you from using it.

Most physicians will tremble in fear at the thought of using Metformin for an off-label purpose such as life extension.

Pharmaceutical companies have ZERO interest in promoting research that can play a major role in curing and preventing disease.

There’s simply no money in it, which is why they’re developing drugs that can be patented (leading to huge sums of cash).

So for whatever reason, if you are unable to get a prescription, I recommend these two offshore pharmacies (here and here) for buying it online.

In a world that grows more toxic by the day and virtually guaranteeing some form of disease, you can’t afford to be unarmed.

Metformin will unquestionably inhibit the formation of illness, keep inflammation far away and optimize your health to the next level.


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